Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads, [78] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures [79] but may also pant when stressed. A cat’s body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats’ general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require, [85] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber , helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a buildup of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.


Carlson Independent molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses have often produced discordant results for certain groups which, for fossil-rich groups, raises the possibility that morphological data might mislead in those groups for which we depend upon morphology the most. Rhynchonellide brachiopods, with more than extinct genera but only 19 extant genera represented today, provide an opportunity to explore the factors that produce contentious phylogenetic signal across datasets, as previous phylogenetic hypotheses generated from molecular sequence data bear little agreement with those constructed using morphological characters.

Using a revised matrix of 66 morphological characters, and published ribosomal DNA sequences, we performed a series of combined phylogenetic analyses to identify conflicting phylogenetic signals. We completed a series of parsimony-based and Bayesian analyses, varying the data used, the taxa included, and the models used in the Bayesian analyses. We also performed simulation-based sensitivity analyses to assess whether the small size of the morphological data partition relative to the molecular data influenced the results of the combined analyses.

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Posted on April 18, by admin What You Say When You Write A Business Letter For writing advice about a letter that you plan to send to someone at a very high level of business or government, I can think of no single individual better qualified to give it than the late Letitia Baldrige. Baldrige knew what was acceptable and what is not because she had been there. She moved in the very highest circles of American society for years.

We here at Howtosayitright. Gene Griessman I refer to it often and recommend that you purchase your own copy. Below is an excerpt from that book. Before you write the letter, make a list of all the points that should be covered in the letter and let the list be the guide in the construction of your paragraphs point-by-point. It lessons your credibility. Re-write it if necessary in order to make sure that it is clear that it fulfills its purpose and that it contains no distracting garbage.

This applies to informal business letters as much as to strictly business letters.

Former Brigham and Harvard cancer researcher fabricated data, federal authorities find

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Molecular clock

Former Brigham and Harvard cancer researcher fabricated data, federal authorities find Former Brigham and Harvard cancer researcher fabricated data, federal authorities find By Carolyn Y. According to a report by the federal Office of Research Integrity, Jian Ma was found to have falsified or fabricated portions of multiple figures that compared different types of mouse lung cancer cells.

Advertisement Those figures appeared in a paper that was accepted for publication by the Journal of Clinical Investigation in , but it was withdrawn by one of the authors in early , before it was published, according to a report of the finding of misconduct, which is scheduled to be published in the Federal Register on Thursday. The finding does not specify which of the authors withdrew the paper.

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E-mail Humans have been on the hunt for the fountain of youth for years – dating back at least to the age of Cortes, and even seen now in the popularity of Botox. Now, researchers from the University of California, Berkeley believe that they may have found it. Most interestingly, the discovery – being touted as a possible “molecular fountain of youth” – has been in our bodies the entire time.

The biologists conducted a study on mice focusing on the chemical SIRT3. Found in the mitochondria, the chemical is responsible for the cell’s life and death and has an important role in the way that blood cells deal with stress. According to some studies, the gene is activated in certain animals when calories are restricted, causing the species to live longer lives.

Researchers decided to see what would happen if the gene that produces SIRT3 was deactivated. Surprisingly, in young mice, nothing occurred. However, as time progressed, the effect of the deactivation became clear. In mice who lacked the gene, two-year-old mice – elderly, by mouse standards – had fewer stem blood cells and had less of an ability to regenerate new blood cells. Then researchers tested whether boosting SIRT3 would have an impact as well.


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Their method, they explain, breaks from the hunt for a single gene mutation that ups your risk of a specific disease — say, the BRCA gene that contributes to a small number of breast cancer cases.

The genetic equidistance phenomenon was first noted in by Emanuel Margoliash , who wrote: If this is correct, the cytochrome c of all mammals should be equally different from the cytochrome c of all birds. Since fish diverges from the main stem of vertebrate evolution earlier than either birds or mammals, the cytochrome c of both mammals and birds should be equally different from the cytochrome c of fish.

Similarly, all vertebrate cytochrome c should be equally different from the yeast protein. Together with the work of Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling, the genetic equidistance result directly led to the formal postulation of the molecular clock hypothesis in the early s. Later, the work of Motoo Kimura [4] developed the neutral theory of molecular evolution , which predicted a molecular clock.

Let there be N individuals, and to keep this calculation simple, let the individuals be haploid i. Let the rate of neutral mutations i. If most changes seen during molecular evolution are neutral, then fixations in a population will accumulate at a clock-rate that is equal to the rate of neutral mutations in an individual. Calibration[ edit ] The molecular clock alone can only say that one time period is twice as long as another: For viral phylogenetics and ancient DNA studies—two areas of evolutionary biology where it is possible to sample sequences over an evolutionary timescale—the dates of the intermediate samples can be used to more precisely calibrate the molecular clock.

However, most phylogenies require that the molecular clock be calibrated against independent evidence about dates, such as the fossil record. A node calibration fossil is the oldest discovered representative of that clade , which is used to constrain its minimum age. Due to the fragmentary nature of the fossil record, the true most recent common ancestor of a clade will likely never be found.

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